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Pergamum (Pergamon) , Turkey

Pergamum, is the place where the general of Alexander the Great, Lysimachus, deposited all his wealth after his death. He chose Pergamum as the place to deposit the wealth. He placed all the wealth under the custody of his lieutenant, Philetaerus. However, after the king’s death, his lieutenant used his wealth and created the independent dynasty of Attalid Kings which was then used as a center of Hellenistic civilization. The two kings of the Hellenisitic civilization, Attalus I and Eumenes II were very successful and Pergamum prospered a lot and was on cloud 9. It was during that time, that the Hellenisitic and Roman leaders united in power and made the   Pergamum
kingdom of Pergamum even more powerful...
Pergamum   Pergamum became a large kingdom ruled by the king Attalus I who extended the borders spent lavishly on the decoration of the place with architectural glories. On the other hand, king Eumenes II brought some great cultural improvements in the kingdom. After that, King Attalus III gave the city of Pergamum to Romans who decorated the city further with their rich taste of art and architecture but it became poor in economy and politics. After that, the city of Pergamum went through different periods and rules under the Arabs, Byzantine and at last the Turkish in 14 AC. This city was very famous as a school of sculptures during the Hellenistic period. It made a huge progress
intellectually and architecturally as new monuments and building were created. Pergamum, during the Roman period, it played a very important part.
The daily life in Pergamum consisted of many social and cultural activities. Hence, in Pergamum all the buildings constructed there were being used in daily life. Socialization was important even more than religion and people used to gather in these places. In fact, in Pergamum these places were built for that purpose only. Even the Pergamum temples were served as meeting places where people could join in social and cultural affairs. Pergamum was famous for being the first city that approved and worked for urbanism. In fact, all the acropolis buildings created there were made with the intention to impress the people in the valley.   Pergamum

Buildings in Pergamum

All the buildings in Pergamum were built in Hellenistic period other than the Trajan Temple and all the buildings were made with andesite. Marble was used very rarely in Pergamum for construction. The famous kings Attalus I and Eumenes II were worshipped in the Heroon shrine. The Sanctuary of Athena in Pergamum was built by the king Eumenes as a dedication to victory-bringing. The Athena Temple was also built by Eumenes II and it was situated at the corner near the theater at Pergamum.

The library of Pergamum was also built by the same kin which is still found today in ruins. Pergamum library was among the three popular ancient librabries. It consisted of 200,000 volumes..
These volumes were given as a gift to Cleopatra by Mark Antony after a century. These volumes were then added to the library of Alexandria. The Pergamum library was enriched with sources but after the prohibition of the export of papyrus, the king ordered another material to replace papyrus. They found the new material to be parchment which was made with sheep or goat skin. This material was first polished and then it was cut into sheets. In Pergamum The temple of Trojan was built in the 2nd century by Hadrian. The temple was dedicated to Trojan who was the ancestor of Hadrian. The temple was entirely made up of marble.   Pergamum
Pergamum   Other famous building is Theatre of Pergamum which symbolizes the Hellenistic taste of art and culture. It has eighty rows of seats and is designed to accommodate 10,000 people. One can see the Hellenistic type of theater in it as there is no permanent stage structure and the audience could see the outside environment also.
Zeus Altar (Pergamum Altar) was built in 180 BC and it is considered to be the finest altar in the world. It is entirely made of marble. However, this alter did not have any temple.

Pergamum Asclepion

Pergamum Asclepion was an important health center during the Greco-Roman times. Many types of therapy were practices here including mud baths, theater, sports, psychotherapy and medicinal waters were used. The Pergamum Asclepion was led by a colonnaded street and it has a temple beside it. The temple was beautifully constructed and had thick walls and high ceilings and domes. It was made in the year 150. The inerior of the Pergamum temple was made up with multi-colored marble mosaics which was the reason of its beauty and charm. It had art galleries on three sides on the walls. There was a passage that went to the sacred spring and it was known that therapies were done here with the sound of running water that cured the patients.

  Asclepion - Pergamum
Asclepion - Pergamum   In Pergamum, a colonnaded street leads to the Asclepion, and to the left of the entrance is the temple of Pergamum Asclepios. This domed Pergamum temple with its exceptionally thick 3m walls was built in 150 AD, with donations made to the god of health. The interior was decorated with colorful marble mosaics, and surrounded by galleries on three sides, the Asclepion has a passageway running through the center alongside the sacred spring towards the therapy building. It is thought that patients were cured here by the sound of running water and by the persuasive hypnotic techniques used by the priests.
The Temple of Serapis - The Red Basilicaca
Another famous building in Pergamum is the temple of Serapis, the Red Basilica. This is a temple entirely made of red brick and was dedicated to the gods of Egypt. You can see the ruined temple now in Pergamum. During the Byzantine period, this temple was converted into a church and was renovated extensively. The church was devoted to the Apostle John. It was then turned into a mosque and you can see the remains of the mosque even now. The fact that it faces west, and is decorated with statues in an Egyptian style, indicates that it was possibly presented to Serapis, the Egyptian god of
  The Temple of Serapis - The Red Basilica - Pergamum
the underworld. Pergamum, in the Byzantine period, it was turned into a church by extensive remodeling, especially to the apse sections, and was dedicated to the Apostle John.
The Temple of Serapis - The Red Basilica - Pergamum   In early Christianity, Pergamum was one of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor addressed by St John in the Book of Revelation, who referred to it as the throne of the Devil. In Pergamum, although a crumbling ruin, it still contains the remains of a mosque.

Pergamum - Is worth seing..

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